MySQL is one of the most used RDBMS (Relational Database Management System) that used in the world. So learning to use this will bring us a great skill that can be used almost everywhere.
In this tutorial, we will learn how to install MySQL on our own server. So let’s start.
1. Install MySQL to Our Server
On Ubuntu, we can install MySQL server using APT package repository.
To install it, we need to update the server’s package index first with this command:
sudo apt update
Then install the
sudo apt install mysql-server
Ensure that the server is running using these commands:
sudo systemctl start mysql.service
sudo systemctl enable mysql.service
These commands will install, start, and enable MySQL on server start, but will not prompt you to set a password or make any other configuration changes. Because this leaves your installation of MySQL insecure, we will address this next.
2. Configuring MySQL
For fresh installations of MySQL, you’ll want to run the database management system’s included security script. This script changes some of the less secure default options for things like disallowing remote root logins and removing sample users.
Run the security script with this command:
This will take you through a series of prompts where you can make some changes to your MySQL installation’s security options. The first prompt will ask whether you’d like to set up the Validate Password Plugin, which can be used to test the password strength of new MySQL users before deeming them valid.
If you elect to set up the Validate Password Plugin, any MySQL user you create that authenticates with a password will be required to have a password that satisfies the policy you select:
Securing the MySQL server deployment.
Connecting to MySQL using a blank password.
VALIDATE PASSWORD COMPONENT can be used to test passwords
and improve security. It checks the strength of password
and allows the users to set only those passwords which are
secure enough. Would you like to setup VALIDATE PASSWORD component?
Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No: Y
There are three levels of password validation policy:
LOW Length >= 8
MEDIUM Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, and special characters
STRONG Length >= 8, numeric, mixed case, special characters and dictionary file
Please enter 0 = LOW, 1 = MEDIUM and 2 = STRONG:
Regardless of whether you choose to set up the Validate Password Plugin, the next prompt will be to set a password for the MySQL root user. Enter and then confirm a secure password of your choice:
Please set the password for root here.
Re-enter new password:
If you use the Validate Password Plugin, you’ll receive feedback on the strength of your new password. Then the script will ask if you want to continue with the password you just entered or if you want to enter a new one. Assuming you’re satisfied with the strength of the password you just entered, enter
Y to continue the script:
Estimated strength of the password: 100
Do you wish to continue with the password provided?(Press y|Y for Yes, any other key for No) : Y
From there, you can press
Y and then
ENTER to accept the defaults for all the subsequent questions. This will remove some anonymous users and the test database, disable remote root logins, and load these new rules so that MySQL immediately respects the changes you have made.
3. Creating a Dedicated MySQL User and Granting Privileges
Upon installation, MySQL creates a root user account which you can use to manage your database. This user has full privileges over the MySQL server, meaning it has complete control over every database, table, user, and so on. Because of this, it’s best to avoid using this account outside of administrative functions. This step outlines how to use the root MySQL user to create a new user account and grant it privileges.
In Ubuntu systems running MySQL 5.7 (and later versions), the root MySQL user is set to authenticate using the
auth_socket plugin by default rather than with a password. This plugin requires that the name of the operating system user that invokes the MySQL client matches the name of the MySQL user specified in the command, so you must invoke
sudo privileges to gain access to the root MySQL user:
If you installed MySQL with another tutorial and enabled password authentication for root, you will need to use a different command to access the MySQL shell. The following will run your MySQL client with regular user privileges, and you will only gain administrator privileges within the database by authenticating:
mysql -u root -p
Run the following command to create a user that authenticates with a password. Be sure to change
jack to your preferred username and
password to a strong password of your choosing:
CREATE USER 'jack'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED WITH mysql_native_password BY 'password';
After creating your new user, you can grant them the appropriate privileges. The general syntax for granting user privileges is as follows:
GRANT PRIVILEGE ON database.table TO 'username'@'host';
PRIVILEGE value in this example syntax defines what actions the user is allowed to perform on the specified
table. You can grant multiple privileges to the same user in one command by separating each with a comma. You can also grant a user privileges globally by entering asterisks (
*) in place of the database and table names. In SQL, asterisks are special characters used to represent “all” databases or tables.
Following this, it’s good practice to run the
FLUSH PRIVILEGES command. This will free up any memory that the server cached as a result of the preceding
CREATE USER and
Then you can exit the MySQL client:
In the future, to log in as your new MySQL user, you’d use a command like the following:
mysql -u jack-p
And, you’ve already succeeded in installing MySQL to your own server.